laser History
Foundations
In 1917, Albert Einstein established the theoretic foundations for the laser and the
maser in the paper Zur Quantentheorie der Strahlung (On the Quantum Theory of
Radiation); via a re-derivation of Max Planck’s law of radiation,...
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laser History
Foundations
In 1917, Albert Einstein established the theoretic foundations for the laser and the
maser in the paper Zur Quantentheorie der Strahlung (On the Quantum Theory of
Radiation); via a re-derivation of Max Planck’s law of radiation, conceptually based
upon probability coefficients (Einstein coefficients) for the absorption, spontaneous
emission, and stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation; in 1928, Rudolf W.
Ladenburg confirmed the existences of the phenomena of stimulated emission and
negative absorption;[8] in 1939, Valentin A.
Fabrikant predicted the use of stimulated
emission to amplify “short” waves;[9] in 1947, Willis E.
Lamb and R.
C.
Retherford
found apparent stimulated emission in hydrogen spectra and effected the first
demonstration of stimulated emission;[8] in 1950, Alfred Kastler (Nobel Prize for
Physics 1966) proposed the method of optical pumping, experimentally confirmed,
two years later, by Brossel, Kastler, and Winter.
Maser
In 195
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